1. Open Offer: It is an exit route, which is given to the existing shareholders by the acquirer of shares through a public announcement.


  1. Personal Identification Number (PIN): A number allocated to an individual and used to validate electronic transactions.


  1. Pledge: It’s a kind of charge created when the lender (pledgee) takes actual possession of assets.


  1. Preference Shares: It is a share which entitles the holder to a fixed dividend, whose payment takes priority over that of ordinary share dividends.


  1. Prime Lending Rate (PLR): The interest rate charged by banks to their largest, most secure, and most creditworthy customers on short-term loans.


  1. Privatization: The transfer of ownership, property or business from the government to the private sector is termed privatization.


  1. Rights Issue: An issue of shares offered at a special price by a company to its existing shareholders in proportion to their holding of old shares.


  1. Rate of Return: The gain/loss on an investment, expressed as a percentage increase over the initial investment cost, over a specified period.


  1. Self Help Groups (SHGs): It is a village-based financial intermediary committee usually composed of 10–20 local women or men.


  1. Speculation: The act of trading in an asset, or conducting a financial transaction, expecting a substantial gain, but with a risk of losing most or all of the initial outlay.


  1. Substantial Shareholder: A person, who acquires an interest in relevant share capital equal to, or exceeding, 10% of the share capital.


  1. Underwriting: The process by which investment banks raise investment capital from investors on behalf of corporations and governments by issuing securities.